Just about everyone is familiar with this image, it's been used and abused. Never as much as the Mona Lisa, but still, done to death.
The critics and explainers have given it all kinds of deep meanings, but sometimes a painting is just a painting and a red sky at night may be no more than a sailor's delight.
Sometimes, but not always.
Munch painted this in 1893, painted it twice in fact, plus a pastel and a lithograph.
Krakatoa (more properly, Krakatau) erupted in August of 1883, when Munch was twenty years old. Some say that one has nothing to do with the other, but he is not the only artist that may have been affected by the dramatic colors in the sky that lingered for years.
JMW TURNER The Fighting Temeraire
Turner painted this in 1838-1839, which would have been much earlier than the Krakatoa event. But there was the eruption of Tambora, also in Indonesia, in 1815. And, between 1822 and 1838, there were eruptions of Vesuvius, Stromboli, and Etna.
Turner, like a lot of artists of his day, visited and painted in Venice.